Greek philosophical dualism also greatly influenced how early church fathers framed the relationship between body and soul. Petersburg Times, November 4, Tyndale House Publishers,n. The following chapters explore what happened next. Sport and Religious Identity Religious groups have adopted sports for a variety of purposes.
Harvard University Press, ; Robert J.
Other influential conservative Christian authors like James Dobson and even Catholic antifeminist Phyllis Schlafly framed the stern Jesus as the ultimate symbol of Christian masculinity, stressing fatherly strength as a prerequisite for domestic tranquility and the stabilization of the state. Marie Griffith, Born Again Bodies: Boydell Press, In Gaul, ballgames of various sorts were organized by clerical leaders in order to alleviate the boredom of monastic life and to aid in preparation for battle. Sports are about the chosen ones, those who are able to make the team — the fit, the able, and the talented.
Games were primarily permissible to the extent that they shaped the bodies of the participants and prepared them for something better. Laura Levitt, Department of Religion Dr. Yet despite the wishes of these luminaries, gladiatorial matches, chariot races, wrestling matches, Matthew Kuefler, The Manly Eunuch: As the name implies, gymanasia, from the root word gymnos nakedwere places wherein bodies were displayed. Kuefler suggests that as Christianity became the dominant religion throughout the Roman Empire, ecclesial leaders began to show ambivalence towards military service, reflecting differing ideals of Christian masculinity. Watson and Parker contend that while these ministries often refrain from critiquing or working to change the culture of professional athletics, they nevertheless exist as necessary outposts of Christian civilization in an otherwise hostile and imperialistic culture.